The Boxer Protocol was a protocol signed on September 7, 1901 between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance—Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Uprising at the hands of the Eight-Power Expeditionary Force. It was often regarded as one of the Unequal Treaties.
In Western countries, it was also known as the Treaty of 1901, Peace Agreement between the Great Powers and China. The full name of the protocol is: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Netherland, Russia, Spain, United States and China —Final Protocol for the Settlement of the Disturbances of 1900, reflecting its nature as a diplomatic protocol rather than a peace treaty at the time of signature.
In China, it was known as the Xinchou Treaty. It was later regarded as one of the "Unequal Treaties".
This event also further marked the increased decentralization of power in China, from the central government to the provinces. This is as both Li Hongzhang and Yuan Shikai had delayed and then disobeyed orders from the Qing Government to join the Boxers in the Boxer Rebellion. These two provincial officers had in their hands very powerful armies, namely the Beiyang Army and the New Army, which were later merged under Yuan Shikai after Li Hongzhang's death. Lastly, the defeat in the rebellion and the severity of the protocol initiated the Late-Qing Reforms, which were basically a follow-up of the Hundred Days' Reform, and led to the 1911 Revolution.
The huge indemnity of 450 million taels of silver was a large burden on the common folks in China, who had to foot it with increased taxes. It is estimated that the entire Qing government income was only about 250 million taels at the time, making the indemnity without interest worth almost two entire years of government revenue. Principal repayments and interest combined over the 39-year duration of the loan, this more than doubled.
The Boxer Protocol was a further blow to what little integrity the Qing government possessed. Some people in China were already dissatisfied with the corrupt and inefficient Qing government, and this only proved that their sentiments were well founded. They had become convinced that the Qing government was utterly incapable of ruling their country, and believed that a revolution was the only way the country could be restored to peace and prosperity.