The Facts About the Three Kingdoms Era in China
The Three Kingdoms Era of China was a period of War in the Country of China between three equally powerful states in China. The Wu State, the Wei state, and the Shu-Han state. The warring of the three states occured after the collapse of the Han Dynasty. The Warring period lasted from 220AD to 265AD, with the end coming when an usurper siezed the Wei throne and founded the Jin Dynasty.
There were three Central figures during this time, Cao Pi, who founded the Wei Kingdom, and claimed himself as emporeor at Luoyang in the tenth month of the year 220. In 221 Liu Bei, the leader of the Shu-han State, claimed himself emporeor of Han, in an attempt to restore the fallen Han dynasty. Sun Quan, the son of Sun Jian, took control of Wu as thier king in 221, about a year later, the Shu-Han troops declared war on Wu, both Armies met in full force at the battle of Yiling. Liu Bei was defeated by Sun Quan's General Lu Xun, and was forced to retreat back into Shu territory, where he soon died.
In 223, Liu Bei's son, Liu Shan, rose to the throne of Shu, and formed an Alliance with the powerful state of Wu. The Alliance was strong, and led by the Brilliant military Strategist, Zhuge Liang. He led many attacks on indiginous Tribes to the south of the Shu Province. After the defeat of the Nanman tribe, Zhuge focused north on Wei. He attempted 5 conguests on the northern State of Wei, but failed with his death in 234 AD.
Wei began to experience some turmoil between two of the biggest Clans in Wei, the Cao Clan and the Sima Clan. Cao Huan succeded Cao Mao after his death in 264 AD. eventually, Cao Huan claimed Wei a Dynasty. But opposition from the Sima Clan grew and in 264 Sima Yan siezed the throne and forced Cao Huan to Abdicate his Kingship over to Sima Yan, who then Founded the Jin dynasty.
The Fall of Shu began to take place in the late 230s. The decline of the Cao clan mirrored that of the kingdom of Shu. Zhuge Liang had captured much of Wei's land in his conquests of the north and gained the title of Lieutenant Chancellor. After his death, that title went to Jiang Wei, Fei Yi, and Dong Yun in that order. The Politics in the Shu Kingdom began to be run by the eunuch faction, and then Corruption rose into politics. Even with the efforts of Jiang Wei trying to capture more Wei land, the Shu forces were never able to make a decisive victory against Wei. After the capital city of Shu, Chengdu, was surrounded Liu Chan surrendered to the wei forces, ending 43 years of Shu-han.
The fall of Wu began with the death of Sun Quan if 252AD. Wu began to go into a period of Steady decline. Successful Wei oppression of Rebellions in the huainan Region reduced any chance of influence for the Wu. after the death of Wu Emporeor Sun Xiu, the throne went to Sun Hao. Sun Hao was a promising young man and revered by many. But eventually, he became a tyrant. Eventually, the Jin dynasty prepared and initiated an attack upon the Wu Dynasty. In 273 AD, Lu Kang, the last General of Wu died, leaving no competent sucessor to the kingdom of Wu, thus causing them to surrender to the Jin Dynasty ending the Three Kingdoms Era.