San Gong Liu Qing-Central Official System in Ancient China
The central organizations and their official rankings were established in ancient China in a bid to reinforce the autocratic domination over the whole country. The official system of the central government began during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC). A three-tiered official system was practiced in the vassal states despite each tier had its own complex of official rankings.
The central official system, mainly composed of San Gong Liu Qing(Three Excellencies and Nine Senior Officers),was established after the unification of China by the state of Qin (221-206 BC).
San Gong(Three Excellencies)refers to Zaixiang(prime minister) in charge of political affairs, Taiwei(grand marshal), responsible for military affairs, and Yushi Daifu(censor-in-chief), the assistant to the prime minister and responsible for secretarial service and supervision on all the other officials.
Jiu Qing(Nine Senior Officers)refers to the nine official positions as listed below:
Lang Zhong Ling -administering the royal bodyguards and attendants, and safeguarding the royal court.
Weiwei -in charge of security of the royal court and recruiting and stationing troops.
Zong Zheng -responsible for royal affairs.
Taipu -taking care of royal horses and carts as well as horse-based transportation throughout the country.
Yanwei -the supreme judger.
Dianke -responsible for governing and hosting the ethnic minority groups subjected.
Zhili Neishi -having at its disposal leases, taxation, grains, and production of salt and iron as well as the state revenue.
Shaofu -in charge of royal budget, properties and supply plus royal court affairs.
Fengchang -responsible for the state protocol and rituals related to arranging sacrifice to royal ancestors.