Dawn of Civilization
Legend has it that a tribe in the North was becoming increasingly strong. That was the legendary Huang Di clan. The two clans of Huang Di and Yan Di made an alliance, defeated Jiu Li clan and killed its chieftain Chi You in Zhuolu, a place west to present Beijing. Later, Yan Di broke the alliance and the two clans had three wars in the "Wilderness of BanQuan". Huang Di tribe turned to triumph over Yan Di tribe and built their capital city in the same place of present Zhuolu. This is the earliest lengend about capital cities near Beijing. The third successor of Huang Di, Zhuanxu, once went to offer sacrifice to gods or his ancestors in You Ling, which is the place of Youzhou, and Youzhou is the original name for the Beijing area.
The legendary Huang Di's Tomb was recorded in the present provinces of Shannxi, Shanxi, Henan Shangdong and Beijing. The tomb of Hang Di in Beijing is situated in the Pinggu county, east of Beijing. The famous poets both Chen Ziang and Li Bai in the Tang Dynasty once wrote poems at the Yuzi Hill in Pinggu County, chanting the eulogy of the place of Jiqiu and the Hathpace of Xuanyuan. The poem of the former is like this: "Onto JIqiu I ascended, and I looked northward for the ancient Hathpace of Xuanyuan." and the latter s poem goes like this: "Like a blanket on the Yanshan hill it snows, down on the Hathpace of Xuanyuan the wind blows".
Slightly later in time than the Lower Xiajiadian site, other sites existed, such as Liujiahe, Hanzhuang, Angu in the Pinggu county, Zhangying and Xiaobeishao in the Changpingcounty, Liulihe, Huanghoutai, Zhenjiangying, Tazhao, Jiaozhuang in Fangshan Distrist, etc. Of all these sites, the most significant one is the tomb found and unearthed in Liujiahe, from which more than forty cultural relics, made of gold, brass, jade, pottery and iron, were discovered and the gold, iron and bronze wares distinguished themselves as treasures. They are the earliest cultural relics found in the area of Beijing and in the meanwhile the unique collection of relics derived from the metaphase of the Shang Dynasty and they are therefore of historical, academic, scientific and technical significance.
The industry of smelting and casting achieved a lot in this period. Sixteen pieces of bronze ware distinguished themselves in arts and crafts, with as the examples the wine container characterized by three sheep standing on the shoulders of the jar body, and the bronze plate characterized by the two birds standing on the edge and the small turtle and fish lines at the bottom.They are the masterpieces of this historical period. The rest valuable bronze wares included the square bronze vessel, the round vessel with lines on the sides, etc. The gold wares found expression in the gold rings and the gold armlet. Rarer than all these was the bronze tomahawk with the iron blade. Not only were the bronze wares representative of the Shang Culture discovered, but also the decorations representative of the LowerXiajiadian Culture, such as the bell-mouthed gold ring and the armlet, were unearthed. The co-existence of the typical wares used by people living on the Central Plains in the Yellow River valley and the north nomadic people compromised the marked cultural trait of the Beijing area three thousand years ago.